Chandrayaan-3’s Journey: Triumphs, Challenges, and the Final Descent

The Chandrayaan missions, launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), have captivated the world’s attention by venturing into the uncharted territory of lunar exploration. Chandrayaan-3, the next installment in this series, is anticipated to build upon the successes of its predecessors. However, the final 30 kilometers of its descent to the lunar surface pose a significant challenge. In this article, we will delve into the confidence surrounding Chandrayaan-3’s success and examine the daunting task that lies ahead during the last leg of its journey.

The Chandrayaan Series: A Brief Overview

The Maiden Voyage of Chandrayaan-1

Chandrayaan-1, launched in 2008, marked India’s first lunar mission. It achieved a significant milestone by discovering the presence of water molecules on the Moon’s surface. This revelation reshaped our understanding of the Moon’s composition and its potential as a resource-rich celestial body.

The Follow-Up: Chandrayaan-2

Chandrayaan-2, launched in 2019, aimed to explore the Moon’s southern polar region. While the orbiter successfully completed its mission, the Vikram lander faced a hard landing during its descent. Despite this setback, ISRO’s ambitious approach and determination garnered widespread admiration.

Chandrayaan-3: The Next Chapter

Building on Success

Chandrayaan-3 represents India’s resolve to further its lunar exploration efforts. Based on the lessons learned from Chandrayaan-2, ISRO is working diligently to refine its landing technology and ensure a successful touchdown.

The Daunting Final 30 Kilometers

As we await Chandrayaan-3’s arrival, a sense of trepidation lingers, particularly during the last 30 kilometers of its descent. This phase, known as the “powered descent,” is critical and requires pinpoint accuracy to ensure a safe and controlled landing. The lunar surface’s rugged terrain and the absence of a global navigation satellite system make this phase exceptionally challenging.

A Senior Astronomer’s Confidence

Navigating Challenges with Precision

In a recent interview, a senior astronomer expressed confidence in Chandrayaan-3’s success. He highlighted the advancements in navigation technology that ISRO has incorporated into the mission. These enhancements are expected to enable real-time course corrections, reducing the risk associated with the challenging descent.

Learning from Experience

The astronomer also emphasized that each mission contributes to a wealth of experience that aids in improving future missions. Chandrayaan-2’s hard landing, while disappointing, provided invaluable data that guides Chandrayaan-3’s development.


Chandrayaan-3’s impending arrival on the lunar surface is met with both excitement and anticipation. As we look to the skies, we are reminded of humanity’s indomitable spirit to explore the unknown. With ISRO’s determination, technological advancements, and the lessons learned from previous missions, Chandrayaan-3 is poised to be a testament to human ingenuity.


Q1. Is Chandrayaan-3 a follow-up to Chandrayaan-2?
Ans. Yes, Chandrayaan-3 continues India’s lunar exploration journey and aims to improve on the successes of Chandrayaan-2.

Q2. What makes the final 30 kilometers of descent challenging?
Ans. The final 30 kilometers of descent, known as the powered descent, is challenging due to the Moon’s rugged terrain and lack of a global navigation satellite system.

Q3. How does Chandrayaan-3 navigate during its descent?
Ans. Chandrayaan-3 employs advanced navigation technology for real-time course corrections during the descent phase.

Q4. What was the outcome of Chandrayaan-2’s Vikram lander?
Ans. The Vikram lander faced a hard landing during Chandrayaan-2’s mission, but the orbiter continued to perform successfully.

Q5. What is the significance of discovering water molecules on the Moon?
Ans. The discovery of water molecules on the Moon’s surface has implications for future lunar exploration, including potential resources for future missions.

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